Window types: single sash, multiple-sash, tilting and more
The illustrations here are designed to represent the various arrangements and opening methods of our windows and doors in schematic form. Furthermore, you have an overview of all the different types, models and shapes, e.g. round or arched windows etc. or lift and slide or parallel sliding doors. Please note that the illustrations are protected by copyright. As such publication, reproduction or any commercial use of these images is prohibited. Permission to use these illustrations must be granted in writing by Windows24.com.
Types of Windows
There is a wide variety of window types in today’s market. Windows can be grouped into different categories. For example, they can be separated according to shape or form, material, function, purpose, glazing or their thermal insulation. We categorise window types by the way the particular window opens or according to its function. Three functions are noted:
Selection by form
Selection by functions
Selection by place
Standard Function in window construction is taken to refer to the following functions:
Fixed glazing is understood to refer to windows that are fixed, i.e. they cannot be tilted or opened. This type of window therefore has no moving parts in the window sash.
Tilt windows are constructed so that the sash can either be rotated along a horizontal frame axis or about a central pivot point and thus tilted. The window sash cannot however be opened up to 90°. As such they are frequently used to provide upper lighting. This fanlight fulfills two main purposes: it allows more light to fall and permits better airing. For this reason tilt windows are very often found in the gymnasium or the swimming pool. These buildings often have limited glass and so tilt windows are used as upper windows.
These windows have one set of fittings that allow the sash to be opened, i.e. turned. The sash can either be opened to the left or to the right. The direction of opening here is very important, as it must be decided on before ordering. The window sash can be opened up to 90°. This feature means the glass can easily be cleaned on both sides.
Turn-and-tilt windows are the most popular of all window types. Using the window handle they can be opened or they can be tilted. These two functions enable very precise airing to be carried out. One can opt to have restricted airing, i.e. just open the window a small amount by tilting the window or one can use the shock airing method – which is also very energy saving method - and open the window wide for a few minutes. In the mean time it is now possible to tilt and to open the window mechanically.
Special functions refers primarily to the following types of window:
Pivoted windows have, as the name suggests, a central pivot about which it is possible to rotate them up to 180°. It can be opened to any angle and has only one sash element. These windows have not only advantages optically, but also highly practical. The design makes them look particularly elegant as they are typically narrow and delicate at the same time. They allow a good deal of light into any room and complete glass frontages can be designed using them. Pivoted windows are also especially easy to clean, as the pivot construction allows cleaning of both sides from within the room. If, however, Roller shutters or blinds have been closed, then these pivot windows cannot be opened.
Pivot sash windows
Pivot sash windows are characterised by the ability to rotate the complete sash through 180°. These windows are very suitable for roof use or large format window facades. They function with just one window sash. When the window is opened the upper section of the sash moves forwards, i.e. into the room, and the lower section outwards. This swing function means that they are also very easy to clean and permit quick and effective airing. They do not have a conventional handle (like a door) but a handle lever. This type of window cab be used to create large windows or large glass frontages to be created which are easy to open.
To open this kind of window the whole panel is moved sideways. It requires little extra room for opening and clearing the window sill is no longer necessary. Many sliding windows are also fitted with a tilt function. One challenge in window construction is the manufacture of the combination of turn-and-tilt with the sliding window.
This combination enables one element to slide open with one other element in closed position. Sliding windows can be divided into those which slide horizontally and those that open vertically.
There are different types of roof window available. Roof window construction includes the following types:
Exit windows are primarily employed where a worker needs access to the roof or where an escape route is required. They have a somewhat wider opening angle of 70° and can be fitted with a door function.
These types of window are used where someone, e.g. chimney sweep, may require direct access to the roof. All of the various types of window can, of course, also be manufactured in different materials. Wooden, uPVC, aluminium and composite wood with aluminium windows are available. The frames can be painted to any colour that you request.
The glazing can be selected separately and has no influence on the arrangement of the final window. The windows can also be provided with special extra functions, for example, they can be fitted with mechanical opening and closing. The design of these roof windows canbe enhanced and the brightness in the room improved, for example, by integrating an upper or lower fanlight.
The Swing window can also be opened a full180°. However, the handle grip is usually placed at the top of the frame. The sash is normally pivoted in the middle allowing quick and easy opening.
This permits simple cleaning. This type of window is particularly suitable for children’s rooms, as the handle is difficult for a child to reach.
Top-hung sash windows
Top-hung sash windows allow the window to be opened wide, as the opening angle is very large. The sash remains in position and works as roof. Handling is easy as the window handle grip is placed on the lower frame. The swing action makes cleaning very simple.